The data listed is provided gratis and is offered as a guide only. It is not intended to be used as the sole basis of design or to establish specification limits. Process Technology assumes no obligation or liablility for any advice furnished by it or for results obtained from use. Due to the complexities of solutions and applications customers must contact their chemical supplier for heater material compatibility and recommendations. For applications involving solution concentrations exceeding 50%, consult factory for watt density recommendations.

Do not use electric immersion heaters to heat flammable solutions! *PTFE is a polytetrafluoroethylene fluoropolymer.

For the Immersion Coil Solution guide, click here.

Chemistry Steel 304 Stainless 316 Stainless Titanium Zirconium Fluoropolymer Quartz Notes
Acetic Acid No chlorides for metals
Acetic Anhydride ≤ 200F for metals
Acid Sulfate
Actane 70, 80 PTFE Only
Actane Salt PTFE Only
Alkaline Cleaners (Electrified)
Alkaline Soaking Cleaners
Alodine (Most formulas)
Aluminum Acetate
Aluminum Anodizing
Aluminum Bright Dip
Aluminum Chloride ≤5 % concentration and ≤150F for metals
Aluminum Cleaners Derated heater required
Aluminum Sulfate ≤ 50% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Ammonium Acetate ≤ 200F for metals
Ammonium Bifluoride
Ammonium Chloride
Ammonium Hydroxide ≤ 30% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Ammonium Nitrate ≤ 50% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Ammonium Persulfate ≤ 5 % concentration for the metals
Ammonium Sulfate ≤ 40% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Amyl Acetate ≤ 200F for metals
Aniline ≤ 200F for metals
Anodizing (Aluminum) ≤ 200F for metals
ARP 28, 80
Barium Chloride
Beer ≤ 200F for metals
Benzoic Acid ≤70% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Black Nickel
Black Oxide (Hi -Temp) Derated heater required
Black Oxide (Low -Temp)
Bonderizing Derated heater required
Boric Acid
Brass Cyanide
Bright Nickel
Bright Copper Cyanide
Brown Oxide
Butyric Acid
Cadmium Black
Cadmium (Alkaline)
Cadmium Fluoborate
Calcium Chloride
Calcium Hydroxide ≤ 20% concentration for metals
Calcium Hypochlorite
Carbonic Acid
Caustic Etch Derated heater required
Caustics (>20% concentration) Derated heater required
Chlorosulfuric Acid
Chromic Acid ≤ 30% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Chromic Anodizing
Chromic Acetate
Chromic Nickel
Chromium (No Fluorides)
Chromium (Fluorides)
Citric Acid
Clear Chromate
Cobalt Nickel
Cobalt Plating
Cobra Etch
Copper Acid
Copper Bright Acid
Copper Cyanide
Copper Fluoborate
Copper Pyrophosphate
Copper Strike
Copper Sulfate ≤ 30% concentration and ≤ 200F for metals
Deionized water
Deoxidizer (Etching)
Deoxidizer (Non-Chromated)
Dichromic Seal
Diethylene Glycol
Diversey 511, 514
Dow Therm Derated heater required
Dye Solutions
Ebonal C
Electroless Copper
Electroless Nickel Derated heater required
Electroless Tin (Acid)
Electroless Tin (Alkaline)
Ethone 80 Acid
Ethylene Glycol Derated heater required
Ferric Ammonium Oxide
Ferric Chloride
Ferric Nitrate
Ferric Sulfate
Formic Acid ≤5 % concentration and ≤150F for metals
Fuel Oil
Fruit Juices
Glycerine (Glycerol) Derated heater required
Gold Cyanide
Grey Nickel
Hot Seal Dichromate
Hydrochloric Acid ≤ 30%, ≤ 160F for metals
Hydrofluoric Acid ≤ 50%, ≤ 120F for metals
Hydrogen Peroxide Derated heater required
Immersion Gold
Iridite (4-75, 4-73, 14, 14-2, 14-9)
Iridite (1, 2, 3, 4-C, 7, 8, 15)
Iron Fluoborate
Iron Phosphate Derated heater required
Isoprep (186, 187, 188)
Isoprep Acid Salts
Lead Acetate
Lime Saturated Water (Alkaline) Derated heater required
Linseed Oil
Lactic Acid ≤50 % concentration and ≤150F for metals
Lye (caustic) ≤30% concentration aqueous solutions and ≤200F for metals
Magnesium Hydroxide Derated heater required
Magnesium Nitrate
Manganese Phosphate Derated heater required
Manganese Chloride 10-50% aquesous solution for metals
McDermid 629 (contains F)
Mercuric Chloride
Methane Sulfonic Acid
Muriatic Acid
Naptha ≤200F for metals; 100% concentration
Nickel (Plating Solution) (Watts)
Nickel Acetate Seal
Nickel Chloride
Nitric Acid ≤ 50% concentration for metals
Nitric Hydrochloric Acids
Nitric Phosphoric Derated heater required
Oils Derated heater required
Oleic Acid ≤ 10% concentration for metals
Oxalic Acid ≤ 10% concentration for metals
Paint Stripper (Alkaline) Derated heater required
Parrafin Molten
Perchlorethylene Derated heater required
Phenolic Resins
Phosphate Cleaner Derated heater required
Phosphate Derated heater required
Phosphoric Acid (No Fluoride) Derated heater required
Potassium Acid Sulfate
Potassium Cyanide
Potassium Hydroxide ≤25% concentration for Zirconium
Potassium Hydrochloric
Potassium Nitrate ≤5% concentration for metals
Potassium Permanganate Derated heater required
Rochelle Salt Cyanide
Salt (Actine)
Sea Water
Silver Bromide
Silver Cyanide
Silver Lume
Sodium Bisulfate
Sodium Carbonate
Sodium Chlorate
Sodium Chloride
Sodium Cyaninde
Sodium Dichromate (Hot Seal)
Sodium Hydroxide <40% concentration and ≤150F for metals
Sodium Hypochlorite ≤ 120F for metals
Sodium Nitrate
Sodium Persulfate
Stannic Chloride ≤5% concentration and room temperature for metals
Stearic Acid ≤ 200F for metals
Sulfamate Nickel
Sulfur Peroxide
Sulfuric Acid
Sulphamic Acid
Tin Nickel
Tin Plating (Acid) (Stanus/Sulphate)
Tin Plating Acid (Fluborate)
Tin Plating (Alkaline)
Trichloroethylene Derated heater required
Trioxide (Pickle)
Turco (4181, 4338) Derated heater required
Wood's Nickel Strike
Yellow Dichromate
Zinc Acid
Zinc Ammonium Chloride
Zinc Chloride ≤ 5% for metals
Zinc Cyanide
Zinc Phosphate Derated heater required
Zinc Phosphate (Fluoride)
Zinc Sulfate